Quest Vitamins LTD,
Garlic (Allium sativum)
Garlic has been used since ancient times for the treatment of many ailments, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. The use of garlic has been mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud, by Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides. It has been used in China since A.D. 510.
Intact raw garlic cells contain alliin (an amino acid) and alliinase (an enzyme). When garlic is cut or crushed, alliin and alliinase immediately react together to produce the pungent substance allicin. Allicin has strong cytocidal (cell-killing) effects and kills all sorts of cells including pathogenic bacteria.
If crushed garlic is left to stand even for a short time, the allicin quickly disappears, because it is a highly unstable compound.
Aged Garlic Extract takes up to 20 months to produce through a cold aging process that creates a cascade of compounds which are stable and efficacious.
In addition to oil soluble compounds, Aged Garlic Extract also contains water-soluble compounds which will not be found in garlic oils or products produced using heat distillation.
Cold-ageing involves taking the highest quality organically-grown garlic, slicing it without acid or heat, and placing it in large stainless steel tanks to be left for twenty months.
During this cold-ageing period, allicin is converted to extremely valuable compounds that do not naturally occur with traditional/commercial processing methods.
Finally the garlic is extracted to harvest mainly water - and some oil-soluble compounds. An extra bonus is that the end product is completely odourless.
Differences in garlic -
Differences in garlic product -
Very many research papers have demonstrated the therapeutic benefits of cold-aged garlic - normally at levels of around 1000 mg per day. Lower intakes (such as 100mg, 300mg, 600mg) are to be used for maintenance of general good health, rather than tackling existing ailments.
When taking supplements it is important to know that they are going to have an effect beneficial to health. It is also reassuring to know a timescale in which they are going to work.
Microcirculation Impaired microcirculation can lead to
Glutathione levels Glutathione is an antioxidant enzyme
Blood Pressure Increased blood pressure (hypertension),
Carcinogen binding Carcinogens, or cancer causing molecules, are highly undesirable and an increased circulating level will cause cellular damage and may lead to cancer. For those working/living in highly polluted areas, reducing this risk is vital. AGE can bind, and therefore eliminate, carcinogens within 3 days.
NK Cells NK (Natural Killer) cells are vital for our immune
Platelet Aggregation Unwanted platelet aggregation can
Cholesterol High blood cholesterol levels are associated
Protection Against Free Radicals and Oxidation:
Matsuura et al. (1997) found that Aged Garlic Extract enhances the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum, friendly intestinal bacteria, whereas other forms of garlic inhibited the growth of Bifidobacterium bifidum. B. bifidum and L. acidophilus produce both acid and anti-bacterial factors and have demonstrated an ability to decrease the growth of pathogens and their production of
SAC, one of the organosulphur compounds in aged garlic extract, has been shown to possess various biological effects, including neurotrophic activity. This study characterises the neuronal death induced by AÃƒÆ’Ã†'Ãƒâ€ Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ÃƒÆ’Ã¢â‚¬ Ãƒ¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã¢â€¢ÃƒÆ’Ã†'Ãƒ¢Ã¢â€š¬Ã‚¦ÃƒÆ’Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¸, 4-hydroxynonenal (product of lipid peroxidation), tunicamycin antibiotic, and trophic factor deprivation, and investigates how SAC could prevent this effect. Results of this study indicate that SAC could protect against the neuronal cell death that is triggered by endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction in the hippocampus. (10)
Review article of the neurotrophic effect of AGE based upon preclinical studies. AGE has been shown to possess neurotrophic effects and protect brain or reduce dementia in the Alzheimer model. SAC and other constituents may be active compounds in AGE. (11)
Evidence suggests that risk factors for cardiovascular disease,
Anti-Depression Effect - Improved Serotonin Level
Fillion (1994), from the Institut Pasteur in France, found that Aged Garlic Extract may affect serotonin release in the brain. Serotonin has a series of effects on the body. It is involved in the regulation of sleep, body temperature, learning and memory, the release of stomach fluids and the immune system. It is also involved in cell growth, pain, feeding and sexual behaviour and adaptation to stress. Serotonin maintains homeostasis or balance in the brain.
When the serotonin system is faulty it results in anxiety, depression, aggressivity, panic obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, suicidal behaviour, autism, and possibly neurodegenerative disorders, migraines, Multiple Sclerosis and alcoholism. In cases of impulsivity, depression and such pathologies, the serotonergic(5HT) system is in deficit.
Antidepressants are often given in an attempt to boost the serotonin system. MAO (monoamine oxidase) inhibitors, for example, block the enzyme that degrades serotonin. Other antidepressants attempt to make
The serotonergic system exerts its effects on assorted neurotransmitters in the central nervous system via a number of different receptors (sort of bridges). (13)
Interaction with various receptors controls the release of serotonin. Fillion reported that Aged Garlic Extract may modulate receptors which bind to serotonin (inhibiting its release), thus making more serotonin available. By making more serotonin available, Aged Garlic Extract may potentially help to alleviate various pathologies resulting from its deficiency (e.g. depression, panic obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia) as well as enhance systems, such as the immune system. (14)
Aged garlic has been extensively toxicity tested, and no amount of it seems to cause side effects. However, normal garlic may cause Heartburn and flatulence in some sensitive individuals.
The safety of any nutritional supplement is vital as they are designed to be used everyday. Aged garlic has an exemplary safety record and may be used by children and during pregnancy without any complications.
Aged garlic has been extensively toxicity tested, and no amount of it seems to cause side effects.
AGE is safe to take during pregnancy and breast feeding.
AGE may block the breakdown of chlorzoxazone (for the treatment of painful muscle conditions).
Dipyridamole is a drug preventing platelet clumping and AGE should be avoided with this medication.
AGE may dangerously enhance the effects of ticlopidine (a platelet inhibiting drug).
Aged garlic extract has no known drug interactions or contra-indications. However, this does not apply to all garlic preparations.
Garlic may interact with alkaloids, colchicine, dopamine receptor agonists, coumarin anticoagulants, and anorectic drugs (fenfluramine).
Avoid use with methotrimeprzine, a CNS depressant analgesic, and antituberculous drugs.
Sedatives, hypnotics, and beta-adrenergic blocking agents may inhibit garlics anti-inflammatory activity.
Safety of intake of Aged Garlic Extract with coumadin has become a question since both show bloodthinning properties. A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial by Rozenfeld et al. (1999) suggests that there is no toxic synergism between these substances and that Aged Garlic Extract is safe in conjunction with CoumadinÃ‚®. (15)
No evidence of increased hemorrhage was observed in a clinical study with deep vein thrombosis patients on oral anticoagulation (Coumadin) therapy who were administered 5 ml of Aged Garlic Extract twice a day for 12 weeks. Aged Garlic Extract is relatively safe and poses no serious hemorrhagic risk for patients on oral anticoagulation
Aged garlic extract (AGE) was administered at a dose of 5 ml twice a day for 12 weeks in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study. There was no evidence of increased hemorrhage in either the placebo or the AGE group. (18)
Except for a slight increase in sulphate conjugation, Gwilt et al.
Aged Garlic Extract - The Synergistic Nature of Garlic
Compounds in garlic work synergistically to produce various effects, but, because of garlics chemical complexity, processing methods yield preparations with differing efficacy and safety.
Although thiosulfinates such as allicin have been long misunderstood to be active compounds due to their characteristic odor, it is not necessary for garlic preparations to contain such odorous compounds to be effective, and they decompose and disappear during any processing. Garlic exhibits hypolipidemic, antiplatelet, and procirculatory effects. It prevents cold and flu symptoms through immune enhancement and demonstrates anticancer and chemopreventive activities. In addition, aged garlic extract possesses hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, antioxidative activities, whereas other preparations may stimulate oxidation.
Additional effects may be caused by S-allylcysteine, S-allyl mercaptocysteine), saponins, Nalpha-fructosyl arginine, and other substances formed during a long-term extraction process. Although not all of active ingredients of garlic are known, and allicin-like transient components are not directly active, ample research suggests that an allicin-free garlic preparation that is standardized with a bioavailable component such as S-allylcysteine, is active and various effects of garlic may be attributed to it. Furthermore, various chemical constituents in garlic products, including nonsulfur compounds such as saponins, may contribute to the essential biological activities of garlic.
J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):716S-725S.
Garlics Active Principles
Phytomed. 7(2):51 2000
Aged garlic extract ameliorates physical fatigue
Aged garlic extract (AGE) has recently received attention as a potent anti-fatigue agent. The principal aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the ameliorating effect of AGE on physical fatigue caused by repeated endurance exercise. The results indicate that AGE may facilitate the turnover of aerobic glucose metabolism, attenuate oxidative stress, and promote oxygen supply based on vasodilation, suggesting that AGE ameliorates the various impairments associated with physical fatigue.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 May;29(5):962-6.
Aged garlic extract inhibits angiogenesis and proliferation of colorectal carcinoma cells
Because colorectal cancer is likely to develop in many people at some point during their lives, prevention has become a high priority. Diet and nutrition play an important role during the multistep colon carcinogenic process. Garlic has been traditionally used as a spice and is well known for its medicinal properties; several studies have indicated its pharmacologic functions, including its anticarcinogenic properties.
This study investigated the effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) on the growth of colorectal cancer cells and their angiogenesis, which are important microenvironmental factors in carcinogenesis. AGE suppressed the proliferation of 3 different colorectal cancer cell lines. The action of AGE appears to be dependent on the type of cancer cell. On the other hand, AGE enhanced the adhesion of endothelial cells to collagen and fibronectin and suppressed cell motility and invasion. AGE also inhibited the proliferation and tube formation of endothelial cells potently. These results suggest that AGE could prevent tumor formation by inhibiting angiogenesis through the suppression of endothelial cell motility, proliferation, and tube formation.
AGE would be a good chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer because of its antiproliferative action on colorectal carcinoma cells and inhibitory activity on angiogenesis.
J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):842S-846S.
Garlic reduces dementia and heart-disease risk
Risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including high cholesterol, high homocysteine, hypertension and inflammation, increase the risk of dementia, including its most common form, Alzheimers disease (AD). High cholesterol is also associated with elevated beta-amyloid (Abeta), the hallmark of AD. Oxidative damage is a major factor in cardiovascular disease and dementia, diseases whose risk increases with age. Garlic, extracted and aged to form antioxidant-rich aged garlic extract (AGE or Kyolic), may help reduce the risk of these diseases.
AGE scavenges oxidants, increases superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione levels, and inhibits lipid peroxidation and inflammatory prostaglandins. AGE reduces cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and is additive with statins in its action. Inhibition of cholesterol, LDL oxidation, and platelet aggregation by AGE, inhibits arterial plaque formation; AGE decreases homocysteine, lowers blood pressure, and increases microcirculation, which is important in diabetes, where microvascular changes increase heart disease and dementia risks. AGE also may help prevent cognitive decline by protecting neurons from Abeta neurotoxicity and apoptosis, thereby preventing ischemia- or reperfusion-related neuronal death and improving learning and memory retention.
J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):810S-812S
Aged garlic extract is a potential therapy for sickle-cell anemia
Sickle-cell anemia is one of the most prevalent hereditary disorders with prominent morbidity and mortality. Oxidative phenomena play a significant role in the disorders pathophysiology. A formulation of garlic (Allium sativum), AGE, has been reported to exert an antioxidant effect in vitro. Researchers evaluated the antioxidant effect of AGE on sickle red blood cells (RBCs).
Five patients (two men and three women, mean age 40+/-15 years, range 24-58 years) with sickle-cell anemia participated in the study. AGE was administered at a dose of 5 mL daily. Whole blood samples were obtained at baseline and at 4 wk, primarily for Heinz body analysis. In all patients, the number of Heinz bodies decreased over the 4-wk period. These data suggest that AGE has a significant antioxidant activity on sickle RBCs. AGE may be further evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent to ameliorate complications of sickle-cell anemia.
J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):810S-812S.
1. Steiner M & Lin RI Cardiovascular and Lipid Changes in Response to Aged Garlic Extract Ingestion. J Am Coll Nutr, 13;5:524, 1994.