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Pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS)
The effects of premenstrual syndrome can range from minimal discomfort and unpleasant symptoms (Fatigue, food cravings, Bloating, lower back Pain) to severe symptoms and lifestyle disruption (which may also include a tense psychological state).
Once menstrual flow begins, the symptoms usually disappear. About one third of all women experience premenstrual syndrome, most cases commencing between the ages of twenty-five and forty.
Treatments of premenstrual syndrome are symptomatic. This can involve adequate rest, a balanced diet, moderate exercise, reduced salt consumption (to relieve both the symptoms and the initial Oedema) and avoidance of drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine and alcoholic beverages).
1. Ockerman P, et al. Evening Primrose Oil as a treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a review. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1990; 97(9):847-52.